Components of a Computer

Components of a Computer

                   Because component of a computers are made up of two parts. The hardware and the software. And the physical equipment required to create, use, manipulate and store electronic data is referred to as hardware. So the computerized instructions that operate a computer manipulate. The data and execute particular functions or tasks are referred to as software.

All computers require the following hardware components.

Central Processing Unit (CPU).

                      This is also known as the brain of a computer. This is a single chip (sometimes more than one chip) located at the heart of a computer that enables it to process data. Also known as a processor. The part of the computer that executes the program is known as the processor or central processing unit. (CPU) The speed of a CPU chip is measured in GigaHertz(GHz).

Arithmetic Logic Unit

                     Arithmetic Logic Unit performs two types of operations. Arithmetic And Logical.Arithmetic operations include addition,subtraction,Multiplication,and division.

                   The logical operation consists of comparing one data item to another to determine if the first data item is greater than, equal to or less than the other.

Computer Memory

             This is an area within a computer system that holds data waiting to be processed.

           There are primarily two types of computer memory. One is the main or primary or internal memory. And the other is the secondary or auxiliary memory. Internal memory is the memory used by the computer’s processor to run its application, program and operating system.

      This Internal memory is often referred to as RAM, which stands for RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

                   The other form of memory is the auxiliary memory which is where the computer will store information that is user-generated. Examples of auxiliary memory are your hard disk, your CD-ROM’s and DVDs.


                     Primary memory is the memory that communicates directly with the CPU. Primary memory is made up of silicon chips. Primary memory has the following two types.

  • RAM
  • ROM


                      When you want to keep data or information permanently, you need to transfer the data from primary memory to a magnetic disk or optical disk.

                 The main function of the secondary storage devices is storage and retrieval. There are three common types of secondary storage floppy disk, hard disk, and CD-ROM

  • Floppy Disks
  • Hard Disks
  • Optical Disks

Input Devices

                   An input device is any machine that feeds data into a computer. The devices that allow data and instructions to be entered in a computer.

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Track Ball
  • Joystick
  • Scanner

Output Devices

                         The output is anything that comes out of a computer. Output can be meaningful information and can appear in a variety of forms. The devices that allow information to be represented (i.e., given out ) to the user, such as a display screen or printer).

  • Monitor
  • Printer

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